Part 5, Note 5

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Norma Shaw, "The Early History of Colorado County Organized as a Model for Teaching a Local History Unit" (Master's thesis, Southwest Texas State Teachers College, 1939). Shaw interviewed two men she identified as former slaves: Richmond Norman, who is the source of the torture stories, and Charlie Phillips, who stated that the rebellion was a myth. Phillips' story is lent credence by the fact that he knew, in the 1930s, that the story had come from a slave named Tom who belonged to Tooke. We know this to be true because it is reported in the Galveston Tri-Weekly News of September 6, 1856. Phillips, of course, would not have had access to 1856 newspapers; therefore, we must assume that he came by the name Tooke from a basically honest source, and that therefore the rest of his tale might also be true.